Citation & Plagiarism Tutorial by Susan Whitehead is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
The following examples demonstrate how to cite common sources according to the APA 7th edition style. For full details, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th Edition).
The APA-style is used in psychology, criminal justice, education, business, social work, maternal child health, health & wellness, and other social science disciplines.
|1 author||(LastName, Year)
|2 authors||(LastName & LastName, Year)
(Jones & Lopez, 2019)
|3 or more authors||(LastName et al., Year)
(Jones et al., 2013)
used in sentence
According to Lee (2014), the dog jumped high
|Quotation||(LastName, Year, p. #)
page example (Jones, 2015, p. 164)
|Organization as Author||(Organization, Year)
(Centers for Disease Control, 2018)
|Articles||Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle. Journal, volume(issue), pp–pp. https://doi.org/00.1111/2222 (include the DOI link if available)
Oricho, D. O. (2010). Understanding benefits of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in the work place mediation. Journal of Law and Conflict Resolution, 2(1), 11–19.
Han, J., & Neuharth-Pritchett, S. (2019). Effects of receiving multiple early intervention services on children’s language, literacy, and general development. Early Child Development & Care, 189(4), 541–554. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2017.1331220
O’Leary, D., Resnick-Luetke, S., & Monk-Turner, E. (2011). Holding out for a hero: Selecting a chief of police. Police Practice & Research, 12(5), 435–449. https://doi.org/10.1080/15614263.2010.536727
|Books (Print, Online, and Kindle)||Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book: Subtitle. Publisher. https://doi.org/0.1111/2222-3333.44.555 (Include the DOI link if available)
Silvia, P. J. (2015). Write it up: Practical strategies for writing and publishing journal articles. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/14470-000
Merriam, S. B. & Tisdell, E. J. (2016). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation (4th ed.). Wiley.
|Book Chapter||Chapter Author, A. A. (Year). Chapter title. In Book Author, Book title (pp. xx–xx). Publisher.
Manzini, E. (2007). The scenario of a multi-local society: Creative communities, active networks, and enabling solutions. In J. Chapman & N. Grant (Eds.), Designers, visionaries and other stories: A collection of sustainable design essays (4th ed.) (pp. 76–95). Earthscan.
|Video||Last Name, A. A. [Username]. (year, month, day). Video title: Subtitle [Video]. Website. Link
Kastner, J. (2013). NCR: Not criminally responsible [Video]. Films on Demand. http://proxy.myunion.edu/login?url=http://digital.films.com.proxy.myunion.edu/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=25661&xtid=58175
White, G. E. (2014, September 30). How to write a purpose statement for my dissertation [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/Dj4GGzrCJm8
Sinek, S. (2009, September). How great leaders inspire action [Video]. TED. https://www.ted.com/talks/simon_sinek_how_great_leaders_inspire_action?utm_campaign=tedspread&utm_medium=referral&utm_source=tedcomshare
|Dissertation||Author, A. A. (Date). Title of dissertation: Subtitle (Publication No. AAT 1111111) [Doctoral dissertation, University Awarding Degree]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
Gregory, T. A. (1996). Transformative learning: A case study of Thomas' theory of diversity (Publication No. 9707997) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
|Federal Statutes (Laws)||Name of Act, Public Law No. (Year). Link
Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, Publ. L. No. 29 U.S.C. §§ 2601–2654 (2006).
|Government Report||Agency that Created Document. (Date). Report Title (Document Number if applicable). Parent agency or agencies if not previously mentioned in the previous agency creation statement. Link
National Cancer Institute. (2014). When someone you love is being treated for cancer (NIH Publication No. 14-5726). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/when-someone-you-love-is-being-treated
World Health Organization. (2018). Infant and young child feeding (Fact sheet No. 342). https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/infant-and-young-child-feeding
|Webpage||Author, A. A. (Date). Title of webpage. Link
The Martin Luther King, Jr. Research and Education Institute. (n.d.) King quotes on war and peace. https://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/resources/article/king_quotes_on_war_and_peace/
The following examples (taken with permission from The Chicago Manual of Style Online) demonstrate how to cite common sources according to the Chicago style (Notes and Bibliography format). For full details, consult The Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition).
The Chicago-style is used in history and the humanities.
|Example: According to Thomas, the “second half of the nineteenth century witnessed a rapid expansion in the industry.”17|
|Articles||Note Example: 17. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, "Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network," American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, 2010, doi:10.1086/599247.(include the DOI or digital object identifier if it is available)
Bibliography Example: Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. "Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network." American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50, doi:10.1086/599247.
|E-Book||Note Example: 17. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (Westminster, MD: Modern Library, 2010), ebrary edition.
Bibliography Example: Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. Westminster, MD: Modern Library, 2010. Ebrary edition.
|Book (print, 1 author)||Note Example: 17. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.
Bibliography Example: Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.
|Book (print, 2-3 authors)||
Note Example: 17. Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 52.
Bibliography Example: Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf, 2007.
|Book (print, 4+ authors)||Note Example: 17. Dana Barnes et al., Plastics: Essays on American Corporate Ascendance in the 1960s (London: Routledge, 1982), 19.
Bibliography Example: Barnes, Dana, Moe Howard, Curly Howard, and Larry Fine, Plastics: Essays on American Corporate Ascendance in the 1960s. London: Routledge, 1982.
|Book Chapter||Note Example: 17. John D. Kelly, "Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War," in Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, ed. John D. Kelly et al. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 77.
Bibliography Example: Kelly, John D. "Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War." In Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, edited by John D. Kelly, Beatrice Jauregui, Sean T. Mitchell, and Jeremy Walton, 67–83. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.
|Dissertation||Note Example: 17. Mihwa Choi, "Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty" (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008).
Bibliography Example: Choi, Mihwa. "Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty." PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008. ProQuest (AAT 3300426).
The following examples demonstrate how to cite common sources according to MLA style. For full details, consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (8th Edition).
The MLA-style is used in the arts, history, literature, and other humanities disciplines.
Please see these Sample Papers from the MLA
|Author’s Name Used in Sentence||1-2 Authors||3+ Authors|
|Your sentence (Page #).||(Last name Page #)
(Last name and Last name Page #)
|(Last Name et al. Page #)|
Parts of Every Citation
|1) Author||Dill, Jennifer
Locker, Kitty, and Stephen Kaczmarek
Goldberg, David R., et al.
|2) Title of Source, i.e. article title or book title||"Bicycling for Transportation and Health: The Role of Infrastructure."|
|3) Title of Container, i.e. journal or anthology||Journal of Public Health Policy|
|4) Other Contributors||edited by Jonathan Chapman and Nick Gant
|5) Version||8th ed.|
|6) Number, i.e. journal volume and number||vol. 30, no. 1|
|8) Publication Date||2009|
|9) Location, such as page numbers||pp. 95-110.|
|9) Location, such as database and DOI or link (DOI is preferred).||JSTOR, http://proxy.myunion.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org.proxy.myunion.edu/stable/40207254.|
|Article||Template: Last Name, First. "Title of Article: Subtitle." Journal, vol. #, no. #, year, pp. xx-xx. Database, permalink.
Example: Dill, Jennifer. "Bicycling for Transportation and Health: The Role of Infrastructure." Journal of Public Health Policy, vol. 30, no. 1, 2009, pp. 95-110. JSTOR, http://proxy.myunion.edu/login?url=http://www.jstor.org.proxy.myunion.edu/stable/40207254.
|Book||Template: Last Name, First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle. Publisher, Year.
Example: Skloot, Rebecca. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. e-book, Broadway Books, 2011.
Example: Stone, Carolyn, and Carol Dahir. The Transformed School Counselor. Lahaska Press, 2006.
|Book Chapter||Template: Chapter Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Chapter Title.” Book Title, edited by First Name Last Name, Publisher, Year, pp. xx-xx.
Example: Wood, John. “Relative Abundance.” Designers, Visionaries, and Other Stories: A Collection of Sustainable Design Essays. Edited by Jonathan Chapman and Nick Gant, Earthscan, 2007, pp. 96-117.
|Videos||Template: Last name, First, Director. "Video Title." Distributor, DD MMMM YEAR. Database, link.
Example: Sutherland, Janice, Director. "The Comedies with Joely Richardson: Shakespeare Uncovered." Public Broadcasting Service, 2013. Films On Demand, https://content.proxy.myunion.edu/login?url=http://fod.infobase.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?wID=107618&xtid=58742.
|Webpage Article||Template: Last Name, First. "Title." Title of Website, DD Month Year updated, http://link.
Example: Herzog, Brian. "Coming Soon: Kurt Vonnegut Memorial Library." Swiss Army Librarian, 19 August 2010, http://www.swissarmylibrarian.net/2010/08/19/coming-soon-kurt-vonnegut-memorial-library/.
Example: "WIC at a Glance." Food and Nutrition Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 27 February 2015, http://www.fns.usda.gov/wic/about-wic-wic-glance.