A literature review is the review of a collection of published research relevant to a research question. All good research and writing is guided by a review of the relevant literature.
An integral component of the scientific process, a literature review is the mechanism by which research is viewed as a cumulative process. The literature review has two components: the actual literature search and the writing of the review.
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What is the purpose of a literature review?
Regardless of the research methodology used, the purpose of the literature review remains the same. It is an essential test of the research question against that which is already known about the subject.
The literature review reveals whether or not a research question has already been answered by someone else. If it has, often the question needs to be changed or modified, so that an original contribution to the research is made.
What questions should be asked during a literature review?
If a research question has not been answered satisfactorily by someone else, then it may be a valid question. Questions that can help determine further research direction include:
- What is known about the subject?
- What is the chronology of the development of knowledge about the subject?
- Are there any gaps in knowledge of the subject? Which openings for research have been identified by other researchers? How can these gaps be bridged?
- Is there a consensus on relevant issues? Or is there significant debate on issues? What are the various positions?
- What is the most fruitful direction for the research as the result of the literature review? What directions are indicated by the work of other researchers?
It is important to recognize that, ultimately, the relevance, significance and importance of a research subject are determined by the researcher.
What are some tips for literature review research?
- Focus the search. Having the research question written down, and on hand, can prevent inefficient wandering into research areas unrelated to the subject.
- When to narrow the search. If too many citations appear for a question then it is too broad, and a more focused question needs to be asked.
- When to broaden the search. If few citations appear for a question, then the topic is too narrow. Perhaps the question needs to be broadened.
- Conduct a systematic search. If little research has been done in an area, then a systematic search is necessary. One option is journals that print abstracts in a subject area which can provide an overview of the scope of the available literature. Other options are a general source, such as a book, or a specific source, such as a research paper, which can provide a starting point and a list of references to begin investigating.
- Take thorough notes. Taking thorough notes saves research time, as references can be quickly accessed again. (Suggestion: open a document in MS Word (Windows) or TextEdit (Macintosh) while running an online search, and toggle back and forth between the search screen and document to record findings).
- Conduct a smart, targeted search
- Identify publications which print abstracts of articles and books in the subject area (research papers previously written in the subject area can help identify these publications).
- Identify authors who are frequently cited and considered leaders in the subject area.
- Identify keywords in the area of interest to help narrow and refine searches.
What are some tips for writing literature reviews?
- Write and Rewrite: since rewriting is always necessary, the first draft does not need to be written in a linear fashion. When one area of the writing proves difficult or premature, it is perfectly acceptable to move to another area, and complete the writing of the review in a non-linear fashion which can be reorganized in the final draft. (Generally, the introduction or abstract is written last).
- Edit and Rewrite: allow time for editing so that the work is clear, concise, and consistent. Avoid jargon that will be unclear to the audience, and always prefer the smaller word to the bigger. To test the work’s clarity, find an outside reader and read the work aloud as well.
- Writing the Conclusion: the conclusion should convey and summarize insights learned during the literature review. While the interaction between the research question and the relevant literature is foreshadowed throughout the review, it is usually not directly stated until the conclusion. There, the researcher can communicate the new knowledge gained after the review by demonstrating the relationship between the research question and the reviewed literature.
Recommended Readings & Videos
- Knopf, J. (2006). Doing a literature review. PS: Political Science and Politics, 39(1), 127-132.
- Efron, S. E., & Ravid, R. (2019). Writing the literature review: A practical guide. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
- Cooper, H. M. (1998). Synthesizing research: A guide for literature reviews (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
- Dawidowicz, P. (2010). Literature reviews made easy: A quick guide to success. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
- Galvan, J. L. (2006). Writing literature reviews: A guide for students of the social and behavioral sciences. Glendale, CA : Pyrczak.
- Oliver, P. (2012). Succeeding with your literature review: A handbook for students. Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.
- Sevillano, L. (2010, May 17). The literature review [Video file]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/jKL2pdRmwc4
- Mitashiki. (2012, October 21). How to write a literature review [Video file]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/_evD46FXFGM
- Allyn & Betty Taylor Library. (2016, April 28). Literature review [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/hVRKsSOl_D8
- Booth, W. C., Colomb, G. G., & Williams, J. M. (2016). The craft of research (4th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.