Citation & Plagiarism

Whenever you use another author’s ideas or words in your paper, you need to give credit to that author using an in-text citation and an accompanying bibliographic citation. Below are citation formatting tools and examples to help.

APA. Click for Citation Examples

The following examples demonstrate how to cite common sources according to the APA 7th edition style. For full details, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th Edition).


The APA-style is used in psychology, criminal justice, education, business, social work, maternal child health, health & wellness, and other social science disciplines.


In-Text Citations

Source Template
1 author (LastName, Year)

(Jones, 2015)

2 authors (LastName & LastName, Year)

(Jones & Lopez, 2019)

3 or more authors (LastName et al., Year)

(Jones et al., 2013)

Author's name
used in sentence
Sentence (Year).

According to Lee (2014), the dog jumped high

Quotation (LastName, Year, p. #)

page example (Jones, 2015, p. 164)
paragraph example (Jones, 2015, para. 12)

Organization as Author (Organization, Year)

(Centers for Disease Control, 2018)

Additional Examples

Bibliography Citations


Source Template
Articles Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle. Journal, volume(issue), pp–pp. (include the DOI link if available)

Oricho, D. O. (2010). Understanding benefits of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in the work place mediation. Journal of Law and Conflict Resolution, 2(1), 11–19.

Han, J., & Neuharth-Pritchett, S. (2019). Effects of receiving multiple early intervention services on children’s language, literacy, and general development. Early Child Development & Care, 189(4), 541–554. https://doi-org/10.1080/03004430.2017.1331220

O’Leary, D., Resnick-Luetke, S., & Monk-Turner, E. (2011). Holding out for a hero: Selecting a chief of police. Police Practice & Research, 12(5), 435–449.

Books (Print, Online, and Kindle) Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book: Subtitle. Publisher. (Include the DOI link if available)

Silvia, P. J. (2015). Write it up: Practical strategies for writing and publishing journal articles. American Psychological Association.

Merriam, S. B. & Tisdell, E. J. (2016). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation (4th ed.). Wiley.

Book Chapter Chapter Author, A. A. (Year). Chapter title. In Book Author, Book title (pp. xx–xx). Publisher.

Manzini, E. (2007). The scenario of a multi-local society: Creative communities, active networks, and enabling solutions. In J. Chapman & N. Grant (Eds.), Designers, visionaries and other stories: A collection of sustainable design essays (4th ed.) (pp. 76–95). Earthscan.

Video Last Name, A. A. [Username]. (year, month, day). Video title: Subtitle [Video]. Website. Link

Kastner, J. (2013). NCR: Not criminally responsible [Video]. Films on Demand.

White, G. E. (2014, September 30). How to write a purpose statement for my dissertation [Video]. YouTube.

Sinek, S. (2009, September). How great leaders inspire action [Video]. TED.

Dissertation Author, A. A. (Date). Title of dissertation: Subtitle (Publication No. AAT 1111111) [Doctoral dissertation, University Awarding Degree]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Gregory, T. A. (1996). Transformative learning: A case study of Thomas' theory of diversity (Publication No. 9707997) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Federal Statutes (Laws) Name of Act, Public Law No. (Year). Link

Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, Publ. L. No. 29 U.S.C. §§ 2601–2654 (2006).

Government Report Agency that Created Document. (Date). Report Title (Document Number if applicable). Parent agency or agencies if not previously mentioned in the previous agency creation statement. Link

National Cancer Institute. (2014). When someone you love is being treated for cancer (NIH Publication No. 14-5726). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.

World Health Organization. (2018). Infant and young child feeding (Fact sheet No. 342).

Webpage Author, A. A. (Date). Title of webpage. Link

The Martin Luther King, Jr. Research and Education Institute. (n.d.) King quotes on war and peace.

Additional Examples
Chicago. Click for Citation Examples

The following examples (taken with permission from The Chicago Manual of Style Online) demonstrate how to cite common sources according to the Chicago style (Notes and Bibliography format). For full details, consult The Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition).


The Chicago-style is used in history and the humanities.

In-Text Citations

Template: Sentence.17
Example: According to Thomas, the “second half of the nineteenth century witnessed a rapid expansion in the industry.”17

Footnote & Bibliography Citations

Articles Note Example: 17. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, "Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network," American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, 2010, doi:10.1086/599247.(include the DOI or digital object identifier if it is available)

Bibliography Example: Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. "Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network." American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50, doi:10.1086/599247.

E-Book Note Example: 17. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (Westminster, MD: Modern Library, 2010), ebrary edition.

Bibliography Example: Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. Westminster, MD: Modern Library, 2010. Ebrary edition.

Book (print, 1 author) Note Example: 17. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99–100.

Bibliography Example: Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

Book (print, 2-3 authors)

Note Example: 17. Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 52.

Bibliography Example: Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf, 2007.

Book (print, 4+ authors) Note Example: 17. Dana Barnes et al., Plastics: Essays on American Corporate Ascendance in the 1960s (London: Routledge, 1982), 19.

Bibliography Example: Barnes, Dana, Moe Howard, Curly Howard, and Larry Fine, Plastics: Essays on American Corporate Ascendance in the 1960s. London: Routledge, 1982.

Book Chapter Note Example: 17. John D. Kelly, "Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War," in Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, ed. John D. Kelly et al. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 77.

Bibliography Example: Kelly, John D. "Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War." In Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, edited by John D. Kelly, Beatrice Jauregui, Sean T. Mitchell, and Jeremy Walton, 67–83. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.

Dissertation Note Example: 17. Mihwa Choi, "Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty" (PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008).

Bibliography Example: Choi, Mihwa. "Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty." PhD diss., University of Chicago, 2008. ProQuest (AAT 3300426).

Webpage Note Example: 17 "Google Privacy Policy," last modified July 27, 2012,

Bibliography Example: Google. "Google Privacy Policy." Last modified July 27, 2012. the date accessed or last modified for the publication date)

Additional Examples
MLA. Click for Citation Examples

The following examples demonstrate how to cite common sources according to MLA style. For full details, consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (8th Edition).

A Quick Guide to the 8th Edition


The MLA-style is used in the arts, history, literature,  and other humanities disciplines.

Paper Format

Please see these Sample Papers from the MLA

In-Text Citations

Author’s Name Used in Sentence 1-2 Authors 3+ Authors
Your sentence (Page #). (Last name Page #)
(Last name and Last name Page #)
 (Last Name et al. Page #)


Bibliography Citations

Parts of Every Citation

1) Author Dill, Jennifer

Locker, Kitty, and Stephen Kaczmarek

Goldberg, David R., et al.

2) Title of Source, i.e. article title or book title "Bicycling for Transportation and Health: The Role of Infrastructure."
 3) Title of Container, i.e. journal or anthology  Journal of Public Health Policy
 4) Other Contributors edited by Jonathan Chapman and Nick Gant

introduction by

illustrated by

narrated by

directed by

 5) Version  8th ed.
 6) Number, i.e. journal volume and number  vol. 30, no. 1
7) Publisher Routledge
Yale UP
8) Publication Date  2009
9) Location, such as page numbers  pp. 95-110.


Second Container

9) Location, such as database and DOI or link (DOI is preferred). JSTOR,



Article Template: Last Name, First. "Title of Article: Subtitle." Journal, vol. #, no. #, year, pp. xx-xx. Database, permalink.

Example: Dill, Jennifer. "Bicycling for Transportation and Health: The Role of Infrastructure." Journal of Public Health Policy, vol. 30, no. 1, 2009, pp. 95-110. JSTOR,

Book Template: Last Name, First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle. Publisher, Year.

Example: Skloot, Rebecca. The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. e-book, Broadway Books, 2011.

Example: Stone, Carolyn, and Carol Dahir. The Transformed School Counselor. Lahaska Press, 2006.

Book Chapter Template: Chapter Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Chapter Title.” Book Title, edited by First Name Last Name, Publisher, Year, pp. xx-xx.

Example: Wood, John. “Relative Abundance.” Designers, Visionaries, and Other Stories: A Collection of Sustainable Design Essays. Edited by Jonathan Chapman and Nick Gant, Earthscan, 2007, pp. 96-117.

Videos Template: Last name, First, Director. "Video Title." Distributor, DD MMMM YEAR. Database, link.

Example: Sutherland, Janice, Director. "The Comedies with Joely Richardson: Shakespeare Uncovered." Public Broadcasting Service, 2013. Films On Demand,

Webpage Article Template: Last Name, First. "Title." Title of Website, DD Month Year updated, http://link.

Example: Herzog, Brian. "Coming Soon: Kurt Vonnegut Memorial Library." Swiss Army Librarian, 19 August 2010,

Example: "WIC at a Glance." Food and Nutrition Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 27 February 2015,

Additional Examples


Creative Commons License
Citation & Plagiarism Tutorial by Susan Whitehead is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

OneSearch Cite

Resources in OneSearch come with formatted APA, Chicago, and MLA citations that you can copy and paste into your research papers.  Please note that citations are automatically formatted and need to be checked for accuracy.  Citation examples are available to help you check your citations.

  1. Find the article/book
  2. Click the Cite icon
  3. Copy & paste the citation


Click the Cite icon for the formatted APA, Chicago, or MLA citation

Google Scholar Cite Tool

Copy & paste formatted citations into your bibliography.

  • Easy to learn and use (no accounts or downloads required)
  • Recommended for bachelors, masters, and some doctoral-level students
  • To use: 1) go to Google Scholar@UI&U, 2) search by book/article title, 3) find item in search results, 4) click cite 5) copy & paste the APA, Chicago, or MLA citation into your bibliography, 6) review for accuracy

Google Scholar Cite Icon

Zotero Tool

Save citations & PDFs while researching and insert them later into papers.  Zotero allows you to create a personal library of citations and PDF files. Most PDF files are automatically imported along with the citation.

  • Set-up required: Downloading Zotero and the Zotero Connector, registering, and setting-up syncing.
  • Difficulty: Usually takes several days for experienced researchers to learn. The OneSearch or Google Scholar citation tools are more suitable for undergraduates or new researchers.
  • Styles: APA, MLA, and thousands of other styles. Easy to switch between styles.
  • Storage: Citation library is stored on your computer. You can sync between computers and store data online. Zotero provides 300 MB of online storage (~300 PDFs). If needed, additional space can be purchased for a small hosting fee.
  • Compatibility: Zotero can be used on computers with Mac OS, Windows, or Linux. The Zotero Connector is compatible with Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, and Safari. The word processor plugin (which will be installed automatically with your Zotero download) is compatible with: MS Word and LibreOffice.
  • Citations are automatically formatted and need to be reviewed for accuracy.

Install Software



  • After installing software and registering, set-up syncing to access your Zotero library from multiple computers and safeguard your research.
  • Open the Zotero program
    From the Edit drop-down menu, select “preferences”
  • On the “sync” tab, enter your Zotero username and password
    More information

Get Started